• GRE拿下Argument写作破解步骤
  • 2013/2/27 14:03:08
  • 纵观整个GRE写作考试,似乎应该概括为“Issue让我们变得广博,Argument让我们成为辩手”,那么,GRE Argument写作是什么?下面我们来分析一下GRE Argument写作特点、破题步骤、写作步骤及论证方法。

      一. GRE Argument写作特点

      What is an Argument?

      A strong argument attempts to persuade the reader to accept a point ofview. As such, it consists of a proposition, a declarative statement which iscapable of being argued, and a proof, a reason or ground which is supported byevidence. The evidence, in turn, is composed of relevant facts, opinions basedon facts and careful reasoning. If you are analyzing an argument, you shouldlook for both of these: a proposition and the evidence supporting theproposition.

      Attack the Argument

      Each argument's stimulus has been intentionally"loaded" with flaws (fallacies) that you should acknowledge anddiscuss. If you fail to see the more fundamental problems in the argument, youwill not get a high score.

      The purpose of the essay is for you to critique the reasoningin the argument (the stimulus will tell you to make this evaluation). Yourpersonal opinions are not relevant. Your essay needs to focus on flaws in theargument. While in the Analysis of Issue you write your opinion on a subject,in the Analysis of Argument you write a logical critique of a flawed argument.Thus, the approaches to the two essays should be different.

      纵观整个GRE作文考试,似乎应该概括为“Issue让我们变得广博,Argument让我们成为辩手”,因为我喜欢辩论,过去参加辩论赛是和人在进行辩论,现在讲GRE,是在和一篇又一篇的文章进行文字辩论,他们之间存在极大的共性,那么如何 去“辩”,如何让我们能如同当年在辩论赛上征服对方辩手一样地去征服GRE的Argument写作呢?




      第三,一篇Argument的用词用句有他特定的风格(和Issue有所区别),因此 考生要选择准确恰当的词句表达。Argument的结构比较固定,易于掌握,一般都能写出个标准的“经典5段式”,为了写好这种模式,这种文章的关键是抓住逻辑错误,这是拿到高分的第一点,最重要的一点。如果写了很多,没抓住要害,语言再好也拿不到高分。攻击的语言可以不专业化,但是抓住错误最关键。如果 文字色彩很专业化,可以表现出逻辑修养,攻击的很地道,当然可以增加分值,写作时间为30分钟。好,下面我们从ETS的的Argument写作要求以及 ETS提供的范文入手,来详细的看看如何写作Argument。

      二.GRE Argument 破题步骤


      例如:表因果的: lead to , cause, result in

      表比较的: compare to ; as…as


      A)每一个小的ARGUMENT都在完成一个貌似很有道理的由因到果的演 绎,或是执果索因的归因。严重的错误往往是发生在推理过程中的,当然有的题目其结果本身也存在着错误,但这些错误远不及推理错误致命。

      B) ARGUMENT也符合一般文章的结构行文,“总分总”的情况很多很多,关于分的部分也多是“原因的并列”,“原因的步步逼近”。

      C) ARGUMENT的结论一般很明显,最常见的就是“therefore”、”Thus”、”Consequently”等等。


      例如:类比 》 因果 》 数据 》 调查

      三.GRE Argument写作步骤及论证方法(范文评析)

      (一). 写作步骤:

      第一段: 开头段。主要是归纳论点,说明论点有问题,存在逻辑漏洞,准备发起进。

      第一层:This argument concludes/recommends/argues that…

      第二层:To support this conclusion the writer cites…/points out that…

      第三层:However, this argument suffers from several critical flaws and is thereforeunconvincing/ unpersuasive as it stands.


      One problem with the argument is that, the editorialobserves a correlation between… and …, then concludes that the former is thecause of the latter. However, the editorial fails to rule out other possibleexplanations for…For example,… Any of these factors, or other social, politicalor economic factors, might lead to…Without ruling out all other such factors itis unfair to conclude that…

      第五段: 结尾段。作者的结论似乎是合理的,但是通过论证,不是这样的。因此作者在做出决定之前,应该还要考虑其他情况。我们通过一篇文章作为实例来介绍Argument的论证步骤和论证方法以及文章结构。

      In the final analysis, the letter's author fails to adequately support therecommendation that…To bolster the argument, the arguer must provide detaileddemographic/statistical evidence showing that…The author must also provideevidence--perhaps by way of a reliable survey—that…

      (二). 论证方法(范文示例):

      Six months ago the region of Forestville increased the speed limit for vehiclestraveling on the region's highways by ten miles per hour. Since that changetook effect, the number of automobile accidents in that region has increased by15 percent. But the speed limit in Elmsford, a region neighboring Forestville,remained unchanged, and automobile accidents declined slightly during the samesix-month period. Therefore, if the citizens of Forestville want to reduce thenumber of automobile accidents on the region's highways, they should campaignto reduce Forestville's speed limit to what it was before the increase.

      简单翻译:6个月前,Forestville地区提高了本地区公路上的最高时速限制,比原先提高了10公里。由于这个变化的影响,本地区车祸的数量提高了 15%。但是,Elmsford地区(和Forestville地区相邻)并没有改变最高时速限制,它的车祸数量在同样的6个月里,反而有少量的减少。因 此,如果Forestville市民想要减少公路上的车祸数量,他们应该想办法将本地区的最高时速限制减少到改变前的状态。


      论据: F地区提高最高时速限制 10公里 ------〉 车祸发生率增加15%


      结论: F地区如果想要减少车祸,就要恢复到原来的最高时速限制。

      大家注意我们一定要搞清结论是什么,这一点我们可以通过信号性标志词来判断:thus, therefore,so, consequently等等。

      The argument is well-presented, but not thoroughly well-reasoned. (说明论点有问题)By making a comparison of the region of Forestville, the town withthe higher speed limit and therefore automobile accidents, with the region ofElmsford, an area of a lower speed limit and subsequently fewer accidents, theargument for reducing Forestville's speed limits in order to decrease accidentsseems logical.(归纳论点,准备发起进攻)




      However, the citizens of Forestville are failing to consider other possiblealternatives to the increasing car accidents after the raise in speed limit.


      Such alternatives mayinclude the fact that there are less (lessàfewer) reliable cars traveling the roads in Forestville, or that the agebracket of those in Elmsford may be more conducive to driving safely. It ispossible that there are more younger, inexperienced, or more elderly, unsafedrivers in Forestville than there are in Elmsford.


      In addition, the citizens have failed to consider the geographicaland physical terrain of the two different areas. Perhaps Forestville's highwayis in an area of more dangerous curves, sharp turns, or has many intersectionsor merging points where accidents are more likely to occur.


      It appears reasonable,therefore, for the citizens to focus on these trouble spots than to reduce thespeed in the entire area. Elmsford may be an area of easier driving conditionswhere accidents are less likely to occur regardless of the speed limit.

      (这是个总结。因此,人们应该更加关注以上的问题,而不是减少限速。E地区可能是一个行车条件比较好的地区,时速限制对它的影响不大。)这种 首句题出本段论点,然后,展开解释的写作方法,实用简单,为广大考生所采用,也是ETS阅卷人最喜欢的句子结构,一目了然。

      A six-month period is not a particularly long time framefor the citizens to determine that speed limit has influenced the number ofautomobile accidents in the area. It is mentioned in the argument that Elmsfordaccidents decreased during the time period. This may have been a time, such asduring harsh weather conditions, when less (lessàfewer) people were driving on the road and therefore the number ofaccidents decreased. However, Forestville citizens, perhaps coerced byemployment or other requirements, were unable to avoid driving on the roads.

      (仅仅以6个月的时间进行判断是没有道理的。因为提高限速后,6个月相对车祸的发生数量来讲太短。或许这6个月是一个比较糟糕的天气情况,人 们驾车外出减少,因此车祸减少(E地区的情况),但是,F地区,可能因为工作或者其他原因,被迫驾车外出。(因为气候条件不好,所以F地区车祸增加,而此时刚好提高限速,大家都以为是提高限速惹的祸)

      Again, the demographics of thepopulation are important. It is possible that Elmsford citizens do not have totravel far from work or work from their home, or do not work at all. Are theremore people in Forestville than there were sic months ago? If so, there may bean increased number of accidents due to more automobiles on the road, and notdue to the increased speed limits.

      (人口统计学也很关键,有可能E地区的人不用开车去上班,甚至不用上班;现在F地区的人口,是否比6个月前多。有可能是因为人口增加导致F 地区路上的车辆增多而造成交通事故增加,而不是由于提高限速。这个地方有个疑问句的形式,符合ETS句型多变的要求)

      Also in reference to theactivities of the population, it is possible that Forestville inhabitants weretraveling during less (lessàfewer)safe times of the day, such as early in the morning, or duringtwilight. Work or family habits may have encouraged citizens to drive duringthis time when Elmsford residents may not have been forced to do so.


      Overall, the reasoning behind decreasing Forestville'sspeed limit back to its original seems logical as presented above since thecitizens are acting in their own best interests and want to protect theirsafety.


      However, before any final decisions are made about the reduction inspeed limit, the citizens and officials of Forestville should evaluate allpossible alternatives and causes for the increased number of accidents over thesix-month period as compared to Elmsford.




      This outstanding essay begins by noting that the argument "seemslogical." It then proceeds to discuss possible alternative explanationsfor the increase in car accidents and provides an impressively full analysis.Alternatives mentioned are that:


      -- the two regions might have drivers of different ages and experience;

      -- Forestville's topography, geography, cars, and/or roads might

      contribute to accidents;

      -- six months might be an insufficient amount of time for determining

      that the speed limit is linked to the accident rate;

      -- demographics might play a role in auto accidents;

      -- population and auto density should be considered; 

      -- the times of day when drivers in the two regions travel might be relevant.


      The points are cogently developed and are linked in such a way as to create alogically organized essay. Transitions together with interior connectionscreate a smoothly integrated presentation.


      For the most part, the writer uses language correctly and well and providesexcellent variety in syntax. The minor flaws (e.g., using "less"instead of "fewer") do not detract from the overall high quality ofthe critique. This is an impressive 6 paper.

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